Innovating Education 101: From hierarchical to collegial leadership #innovatorsmindset

Just like the shift from the factory model of schooling, leadership in education (and in life) is transitioning from command and control, centralised power to shared and collegial model. The innovation trajectory of Atlassian, originally an Australian start-up, is remarkable and it has topped the BRW best place to work. Atlassian understands the idea of change and agility:

“When I hear companies say they want to preserve their culture, I get worried because those things will always evolve with the people you add,” said Jeff Diana, the chief people officer.

IMG_1990Nothing stands still. Innovate or perish, or at least kill-off that spark of curiosity within every child starting school.

I’m enjoying reading George Couros’ book The Innovators Mindset: Empower Learning, Unleash Talent, and Lead a Culture of Creativity, published just a few months ago. He wrote:

If we want innovative students we need innovative educators

And add to that, if we want innovative educators we need innovative leaders.

Past (and even present) practices and approaches are unsuited to future aspirations. Think about successful companies and ideas that have broken or disrupted existing models:

Uber vs Taxi monopolies

Airbnb vs Hotels

Netflix vs Pay TV & Free-to-air TV

itunes vs Video stores

Kodak vs digital/phone cameras

Disruption often takes most of us by surprise. 10 years ago free-to-air TV schedules dictated our viewing choices, quality drama was meted out on a weekly basis. Today, networks are struggling with the options available (realistically, to capture the advertising dollar) and need to rely on sport and reality/game shows to keep the populace tuning back each week.

The Collins Dictionary word of the year 2015 is binge-watch and aptly describes our viewing habits today. We no longer wait for the TV networks to tell us what and when to watch it.

The age of innovation therefore, requires new leadership. In Australia, our public broadcaster, the ABC, has just appointed a new General Manager -Michelle Guthrie. For many the ABC is a much-loved and culturally-protected public institution, TV without advertisements, supported by taxes and accountable to the Australian people. Ms Guthrie comes from Google and before that other commercial pay-TV networks. While the ABC has been a leader in streaming its digital services, it’s ongoing competitive prospects are not so certain. There is likely to be disruption in order to innovate, she did work for Google after all.

Whatever the industry, leading innovation requires a new mindset to be able to cast the vision, chart the course and bring people along. But what is essential is shifting thinking and, as Couros calls it, embrace the innovator’s mindset.  Innovative students, taught by innovative educators require innovative leaders to kick start and maintain the forward -thinking culture. It requires educational leaders to leave some things behind and to embrace a new way of working, thinking and relating. 

So with respect to Bill Ferriter’s What do kids want to do with technology? graphic (along with Couros’ own iteration), I’ve further hacked concept:

Slide1.jpg
@anneknock

 

Innovating Education 101

(This has been prepared to share as a resource for a talk I recently gave.)

The key to change is developing strategy by asking three simple questions…

  1. Where are we now?
  2. Where do we need to be?
  3. How do we get there?

When I was in school it was like this:

  • One teacher for each class
  • Everyone facing the frontSlide23
  • Students grouped according to chronological age
  • School day chunked into 40 minute slots
  • Bells and schedules to organise the day
  • Teacher and textbooks knowledge authority
  • Command and control to maintain order
  • Stand and deliver to impart content
  • Limited computer access

But wait, isn’t that the experience of many children today?

It is true that for many young people their school experience is much the same as someone who finished school in 1978. This model of education was designed for the industrial era. Pragmatic thinking, preparing students for that ‘job for life’ with a finite set of skills. The 21stC is a different era altogether – it’s open, shared, collaborative, creative, entrepreneurial. The OECD report mentioned below says that the kinds of skills that are “the easiest to teach are also the easiest to automate, digitise and outsource”.

Changing the nature of an institution like school is the same as turning around an ocean liner, but if that vessel was headed for danger, no matter how difficult, how long it took, it’s worth turning it around for the sake of the passengers.

In the same way, turning around education is also worth it for the passengers – the future of our young people depends on it. The world has changed. Life outside of school in connected, it’s in real time and, while there are risks and concerns, there are also immense opportunities. If we can provide the optimal learning environment, if we can engage young minds in the joy of learning.

A new set of skills and rethinking the learning environment is necessary. Here’s what others say what is required:

None of this underplays the need for a rigorous curriculum and an emphasis on literacy and numeracy remain a priority. It is not so much the ‘what’ but the ‘how’. Engaged learners are hungry to acquire skills and seek out the resources they need, especially when the learning coincides with their passions.

What we do need to focus on, as Sir Ken Robinson has pointed out in his most recent book Creative Schools: Revolutionising Education from the Ground Up, we need to focus on the art of teaching and identify what is worth knowing (not just for the test). He also outlines eight competencies: curiosity, creativity, criticism, communication, collaboration, compassion, composure, citizenship.

At Northern Beaches Christian School we have embarked on this journey, under the visionary leadership of Stephen Harris. We are seeking to create a learning environment that is relevant to a changing context. Like many schools around the world, we see the need to radically disrupt the existing paradigm. We think about school as three spaces: cultural, physical and virtual.

What is normally associated with “school” is put under the microscope to determine its relevant in a changing world. Not everything goes out the window, after all, we still need to prepare our students for an external 3 hour handwritten exam. The basics of education matter. NBCS has 1300 students and the academic achievement of the 2015 final year students has exceeded our expectations.

At NBCS the disruption includes:

  • Rethinking the school day – 4x 75minute learning sessions
  • Shared learning spaces – about 80% across the school
  • Shared staff and staff-student spaces. Even the principal shares “an office” with 10 others
  • Cross-curricula learning
  • No bells
  • Non-typical school design and furniture
  • Focus on quality relationships – everywhere!
  • Professional-like spaces for creative subjects

FullSizeRender (1).jpgIt’s a school that in many ways doesn’t look like a school. (Click the pic to see a video).

 

Where to start? One simple thing is to start to change mindsets. Stop saying I have taught. Instead change the focus, ask…

Have they learnt?

@anneknock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 ideas to encourage an entrepreneurial mindset at school

What the future holds

There are immense opportunities for this generation of students. Demographer Bernard Salt found that the development of new technology also creates new opportunities for entrepreneurs: Connectivity will impact on all types of jobs, even those not strictly in the technology space – but they will make greater use of technology.

According to  Salt a culture of entrepreneurialism is being driven by the rise of new technology and digital disruption. Over the last 10 years in Australia 3.3 million jobs have been created and 300,000 jobs have been lost. (Jobs of the Future: How safe is your occupation? SMH 6 Sept, 2015). The job growth areas:

The care givers

The technocrats

The specialist professions (Including teachers, phew!)

The doers

The creatives

Becoming future-focused at school

Are schools taking advantage of the breadth of career opportunities for young people?

Is there a fixed mindset in the structure and organisation of school as if nothing has changed?

Who is making the choices for technology? The educators, the techies or the persuasive sales-people? 

NBCSThe key is being open and willing to embrace the opportunities of a changing world. Creativity flourishes within the context of constraints. There are conditions that must be maintained, including: academic rigour, standards, student safety and the joy of learning.

So rather than see the world either/or, how do we embrace the both/and to encourage an entrepreneurial mindset? To meet community expectations AND create the context for entrepreneurs to flourish.

10 ideas to encourage entrepreneurs at school – creating the context

  1. Skills – Rethinking the timetable and schedule
  2. Time – Ideas take time to mature.
  3. Creative spark – Knowing and applying the conditions that encourage creativity (and avoiding what kills it)
  4. Drive and determination – There is a necessary stick-to-it-iveness for success as an entrepreneur
  5. People-oriented – Collaboration and empathy are essential
  6. Marketing mindset – Shaping ideas/products/services that people need
  7. Space and environment – Inspiring creative work through considering the physical space
  8. Savvy – Thinking ahead of the curve, anticipating needs and opportunities
  9. Technology – The enabler to for so many opportunities
  10. External expertise – Engaging mentors and specialists to help shape ideas

We are not doing our students any favours by insisting on maintaining a model of learning and method of assessment that reflects past expectations.

The world is open.
Opportunities exist.
Learning will always matter.
Great teachers are essential
But school may need to look a little different.

@anneknock

Insight for schools: Trends in university learning space design, big shift from lectures to collaborative learning

For many school-based educators, one of the justifications for maintaining a traditional teacher and content focused culture is the need to prepare students for university. But what if universities are changing.

MUSE  Macquarie University

MUSE at Macquarie University

There are many examples of tertiary institutions that understand the need for change. Information, lectures and resources can be accessed online, so why would they need to come into university. The MUSE at Macquarie University (pictured) is the transformation of the former library of the 1960s into learning commons and now more students are on campus, they have a place to go.

It has been interesting to read the chapter: The Further and Higher Education Campus in Design for the changing education landscape (2014) by Andrew Harrison and Les Hutton. There is significant insight for the school education sector from what is happening at the tertiary level.

The examples in this chapter are in a process of philosophical shifts, from tutor/lecturer focused, front facing classes toward collaborative and active learning environments. The Active Learning Center at the University of Minnesota noted the difference in the behaviour of a professor in the two different learning modes. In the traditional rooms there was more lecturing and the professor remained at the lectern. The open space approach showed more discussion, movement throughout the space and greater consultation with individuals and small groups.

From: Design for the changing education landscape (2014) Andrew Harrison and Les Hutton.

Before and After at Melbourne University From: Design for the changing education landscape (2014) Andrew Harrison and Les Hutton.

The lecture theatre has limited cut-through and is increasingly inconsistent with the modes of learning that students need in the technology rich environment. It is not uncommon for students to stream lectures to their device, rather than sit in the lecture theatre. Physics lecturer, Eric Mazur realised how ineffective the lecture was for gaining knowledge and understanding. He discovered that this was better achieved through discussion and student-to-student explanation. In the article in Harvard Magazine,  Twilight of the Lecture: The trend toward “active learning” may overthrow the style of teaching that has ruled universities for 600 years, he says,

It’s no accident that most elementary schools are organised that way. The reason is, that’s how we learn. For some reason we unlearn how to learn as we progress from elementary school through middle school and high school. And in a sense, maybe I’m bringing kindergarten back to college by having people talk to each other!”

We can better prepare our students for further learning by considering these elements in the design of school, especially in terms of the three learning landscapes – physical, virtual and cultural.

The City – the campus as a learning communityManhattan and the City at NBCS

Alongside designated places for learning, we begin to see the entire campus as a learning landscape, identifying the spaces in-between. Movement areas are designed as part of the overall landscape. The balance of formal and informal settings is changing as students are required to be more self-directed. In many schools, valuable real estate is taken up by herding cattle along corridors. We can consider how these transition spaces can be exploited. Food is also important, more than just fuel, it is a catalyst for connection. But quality of the food and design of the setting matters.

Informal and Social Learning Spaces 

Primary school in Copenhagen

Primary school in Copenhagen

Mobile technology is the enabler that make informal spaces work for learning. They are usually outside the classroom, adjacent to eating and gathering spaces. Designed for both staff and student to co-locate, supporting the notion of a pervasive learning community. Social hubs are designed to suit each institution’s unique needs and culture.

Furniture Layout 2012-10-10 12.40.08 copy

Round tables encourage collaboration and quickly create a community of
learning. The students are forced to look at each other, changing the relationship amongst the classes. Allowing for different furniture types and multiple arrangements encourage collaborative and group based learning.

Libraries

A contentious subject for many schools. When learning resources are available digitally and students can almost carry a library on their device, the libraries can serve as information commons. The place where the digital learning environment can be managed. The lines are blurring between the learning commons, technology spaces, social/food spaces and information spaces. There can be sanctuaries for concentration and reflection alongside the collaborative and group settings, providing for different needs and a variety of settings for learners

TU Delft Library

What’s your metaphor?

As I explore this subject the importance of creating a metaphor for the spaces recurs. Ownership, codes of behaviour and a simple description in the shape of a metaphor can communicate the complex in a simple way. Here are some examples I recorded as I read Harrison and Hutton. What do you think they are describing?

  • City and the streets
  • Front Porch
  • Cul-de-sac
  • Den
  • Hive
  • Club
  • Cell
  • Home

No standing still

Learning is changing as society changes. Gaining knowledge and understanding in a digital and globally connected world requires a new mindset. We can stick to tried and tested ways, claim that the pendulum always swings back again, but I haven’t seen many pendulum clocks anywhere other than a museum. The world has changed and thankfully the place where learning occurs is evolving.

@anneknock

Design for the Changing Educational Landscape

Designing spaces for learning: 10 questions to STOP asking and 10 questions to START asking for choice, flexibility & connection

Design for the Changing Educational LandscapeCurrently I am reading Design for the Changing Educational Landscape: Space, Place and the Future of Learning (Harrison & Hutton). The book was published in 2014 and cites research and white papers dating back to the early 2000s. People were having the conversations then, the same ones that we are having now. A quote in the book is from the Design Council (UK) “Learning Environments Campaign Prospectus: From the Inside Out Looking In” (2005)

The 2005 research showed low quality, standardised and institutional classroom environments and resources are not just uninspiring, they actually:

  • reduce the range of teaching and learning styles possible and affect interaction between teacher and student
  • undermine the value placed on learning
  • fail to adapt to individual needs
  • hinder creativity
  • are inefficient
  • waste time and effort
  • cost more in the long term

Too often the imperative of the urgent and the need to meet the budget stops school leaders from stepping back to ask the right questions. So instead they default to what schools have always done, perhaps based on the expectations of parents, governors or media.

10 Questions to stop asking:

  1. What buildings do we want?
  2. How many classrooms do we need?
  3. What are the external distractions that need to be minimised?
  4. What are the subjects we need to teach?
  5. How many desks and chairs do we need?
  6. Where do we put the whiteboard?
  7. Can all the students see the teacher/whiteboard/front?
  8. Where are the noticeboards to display student work?
  9. Where do we put the teachers desk?
  10. What technology do we need today?

The Design Council paper includes this annotated photo, a snapshot in time that could be the reality in many schools today, 10 years later. What does it tell us?

From:  Learning Environments Campaign Prospectus - From the inside looking out

From: Learning Environments Campaign Prospectus – From the inside looking out

Internal decor: Standardised institutional environment lacks character and fails to complement other aspects of design

Displays: Static and scrappy displays of student work rapidly become wallpaper.

Teacher’s desk: Teacher zone supports didactic approach and mindset among teachers and pupils

Technology: When technology is not embedded within design the environment will not support ongoing flexible adaptation

Desks and arrangement of furniture

  • Middle of the class: Children not wanting to answer questions sit outside this area
  • Desks at the back: Children wanting to misbehave sit here

Light: Lack of control over light

Furniture: Inflexible desks and chairs inhibit group work and movement

In 2009, the Salford Centre for Research and Innovation in the Built and Human Environment Barrett and Zhang emphasised the link between learning and space.

Barrett and Zhang do not believe it is possible to create a plan that will work forever, however…three key issues seem to link school design with considerations of individualisation, and provide a framework within which change can take place.

These three issues are choice, flexibility and connection.

Taking the time to think ahead, to understand the learning and social needs of students and provide the learning environment that students need, there are alternative questions that can be asked:

  1. What kind of learning do we want to see?
  2. What are the learning relationships we want to encourage?
  3. How much natural light and outside inspiration can we accommodate?
  4. What tools and resources are available to us to support students’ learning?
  5. What furniture facilitate the learning environment we need?
  6. What focal points are required?
  7. Where will the variety of learning modes happen in the space?
  8. How do we share the creativity and innovation of students?
  9. How do we facilitate the storage needs for the teacher?
  10. What (do we imagine) will be our technology needs in the future?

There are probably many more, but this is a start.

@anneknock

Happy teachers matter: Seven things school leaders can do to create the optimal culture

happy faceWhat are some of the things that make us happy in our work?

  • A sense of a job well done
  • Confidence in our abilities
  • Great people to work with
  • Feeling valued for our efforts
  • Being heard and understood

OECD ReportIn March 2015 the OECD released a report from the International Summit on the Teaching Profession: Schools for 21st Century Learners (2015) by Andreas Schleicher. It identified some good news, and some not-so-good news:

The good news: The most successful education systems are those in countries whose society values the teaching profession.

The not-so-good news: Fewer than one in three teachers believe that teaching is a valued profession in society.

“…their belief in their ability to teach, engage students and manage the classroom – has an impact on student achievement as well as teachers’ own practices enthusiasm and job satisfaction and behaviour in the classroom.”

What can school leader do to enhance teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction?

Balloons

1. Distributed leadership, provides opportunities to participate in decision making at school.

2. Positive interpersonal relationships between teachers and their colleagues and teachers and their students

Good relations between teachers and their colleagues and between teachers and their students can mitigate the negative effects of challenging classrooms…”

3. Meaningful appraisal and feedback that recognises and celebrates teachers’ strengths while simultaneously challenging teachers to address weaknesses in their pedagogical practices.

4. Provide a culture of collaboration among teachers through:

    • jointly teaching the same class
    • observing and providing feedback on other teachers
    • engaging in different classes and age groups
    • professional learning

“The strongest association with teachers’ job satisfaction appears to be participating in collaborative professional learning activities five times a year or more.”

5. Applying a variety of teaching practices, from instructional to constructivist practices.

“The latter [constructivist practices] forms of teaching and learning help to develop students’ skills to manage complex situations and to learn both independently and continuously. It has also been argued that these practices enhance students’ motivation and achievement.”

6. Quality professional development. A focus on the three components of self-efficacy – classroom management, instruction and student engagement  – strengthen their confidence.

7. Capacity to positively handle misbehaving students.

Teachers who spend more time keeping order in the classroom reported lower levels of self efficacy and job satisfaction

This report reinforces what many of us know and believe. When teachers are confident in their abilities, working positively and productively with our peers (and students) and equipped for the job, we build a place where our people want to come to work everyday… because we’re happy!

@anneknock

How do you lead innovation in schools? Step 1: Unlearn some old stuff & Step 2: Learn some new stuff

School leaders – here’s a quick quiz

  • Are you prepared for disruption, mess and opposing viewpoints?
  • Do you think you can successfully challenge the status quo?
  • Can you throw out conventional approaches to leadership?
  • Will you stick to it for the long haul?

Yes? Then read on.

FullSizeRender (1)Making It Mobile is the SCIL signature workshop for educators coming up in a few weeks, held at our school in Sydney. In the practitioner strand the focus is on “teachers as designers”. Alongside this, I am facilitating a parallel workshop for leaders, but I am troubled. What if these amazing passionate teachers are inspired and are keen to innovate in their schools, only to return to the same-old leadership, where innovation needs to fit in a pre-defined box? These teachers will become discouraged and disillusioned. A new leadership paradigm is essential.

On my drive to work this morning I listened to the TEDx talk by Linda Hill: How to manage for collective creativity (Sept 2014). Linda is the professor of business administration at the Harvard Business School. She opened her talk:

FullSizeRenderI have a confession to make. I’m a business professor whose ambition has been to help people to lead. But recently, I’ve discovered that what many of us think of as great leadership does not work when it comes to leading innovation….
If we want to build organisations [schools] that can innovate time and again, we must unlearn our conventional notions of leadership.

These “conventional notions of leadership” are spelt out in the plethora of leadership literature on our actual or virtual bookshelves published over many decades. They tell us that leadership starts with a vision, it rises and falls on the leader to execute strategy and, as many leaders can testify, it is a lonely and stressful business. The prevailing culture is that “the people” look to “the leader” to tell them what to do.

There seems to be two long held beliefs that need to be challenged:

  1. The absolute leader – knows all and tells all
  2. The lowly minion – has no ideas and does what they are told by the absolute leader

Companies like Pixar and Google understand that successful innovation is not about the solo genius, in the same way leading an innovative school or organisation requires a complementary team-based approach. The innovative school needs an innovative leader who creates the environment where:

  • collaboration is the culture
  • problems are opportunities
  • team is the prevailing structure
  • the talents and passions of ‘the many’ can be unleashed
  • diversity and conflict co-exist
  • there is a village or a community

The journey of innovation has an unknown tomorrow, but it starts today with complex and compelling problems that need an answer. To navigate this future the first thing we must do is embark on that journey of unlearning.

The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who can not read or write, but those who can not unlearn, learn and relearn – Alvin Toffler

@anneknock

Making it Mobile – 2 day workshop
30 April – 1 May
Northern Beaches Christian School, Sydney Australia

Innovating school: Mapping the change journey – 5 priorities identified by the OECD

According to the OECD, these are the three ingredients for innovating schools and systems:

  • Leadership: strong leaders who establish optimal conditions in their schools
  • Teachers: Confident and capable in their practice
  • Culture: An openness to innovation

Schools for 21stC Learners

OECD Report: Schools for 21st-Century Learners: Strong Leaders, Confident Teachers, Innovative Approaches (2015) by Andreas Schleicher,

This document draws from three sources: evidence from TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Survey) and PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment); and the OECD’s ILE (Innovative Learning Environments) project.

Innovating to create 21st century learning environments (Chapter 4)

Innovative Learning Environments- How do you rate on the five key criteria-

Are the environments in which student learn sufficiently innovative?

Innovation in education is not just a matter of putting more technology into more classrooms; it is about changing approaches to teaching so that students acquire the skills they need to thrive in competitive global economies. (p.63)

Preparing young people for this rapidly changing world means that they are required to be continually learning and are adaptable to change, with the commensurate set of skills and competencies.

The OECD report outlined five key areas that strong leaders need to develop in their schools:

1. Regrouping teachers

  • Collaborative planning, orchestration and professional development
  • Collaboration as a tool for sharing best practice
  • Development of professional learning communities
  • Team teaching to target specific learners within a large group
  • Enhanced visibility, to learn from one another, not hidden behind a door

2. Regrouping learners

  • Learners of different ages, encouraging diversity and enabling peer teaching
  • Smaller groups within larger groups
  • Mixing abilities in small working groups

3. Rescheduling learning

  • Flexibility of time and timetabling, fewer and longer sessions in a day
  • Move from the standard subject-based curriculum
  • Establish new routines and rituals
  • Learning outside of regular school hours – face to face and online learning options

4. Widening pedagogical repertoires

  • Inquiry-based learning, acquire knowledge while practising skills
  • Interdisciplinary learning
  • Real life and hands-on experiences
  • Technology-rich environment provides the necessary tools
  • Integrating a menu of teaching and learning options

5. Culture and policies

  • Create communities and build capacities
  • Collaborate and communicate, wider partnerships and connections
  • Create conditions conducive for innovation, strong leadership is essential
  • Ensure coherence, less top-down, more engaging those most involved with teaching and learning

What is your most pressing priority to move toward innovation?

Innovation transition


@anneknock

From the 3Rs to fast-tracking the 3Es: Entrepreneurial Educational Experience in 4 key steps

AusYearEach year on our national day, there are several categories of award for the Australian of the Year. It is an important event, highlighting significant Australians who have made a difference to the lives of others. The Local Hero Award was presented to Juliette Wright, who founded Givit: Goods for good causes. She is described as a social entrepreneur.

Juliette created the portal to ensure quality goods get to where they are most needed by safely connecting and inspiring an online network of givers. Juliette’s vision, hard work and determination have resulted in donations of more than 126,000 items to disadvantaged members of the Australian community. (Australian of the Year: Local Hero testimonial)

As I listened to Juliette’s story on the televised the award ceremony a couple of months ago, I thought about how technology has enabled so many positive initiatives in our society. The scale of the project could only be achieved through technology facilitating this social enterprise.

Educating our students in entrepreneurship to make a difference needs to be a priority for their future, the World Economic Forum: Global Education Initiative: Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs encourages:

Embedding entrepreneurship and innovation, cross-disciplinary approaches and interactive teaching methods all require new models, frameworks and paradigms. It is time to rethink the old systems and have a fundamental “rebooting” of the educational process. Incremental change in education is not adequate, especially in today’s rapidly changing society. We need schools, colleges and universities that are entrepreneurial in their approach to preparing individuals for the future. (p.10)

This quote sums up what we have been talking about for a number of years – Incremental change in education is not adequate – we need big change. It’s more about taking a running jump across a chasm, than going step-by-step down one side of the gully and clambering up the other side. Then I looked at the date of this report – May 2009, six years ago.

What were the tech trends in 2009

  • Apps take off for iphone [v.3] and ipods
  • Twitter goes mainstream
  • Netbook sales climb
  • Mobile phones get satellite navigation

This report was released the year before the iPad and without the saturation of technology and growth in opportunities that we see as everyday in 2015. So what happened? Six years later we are not seeing sufficient widespread change in the entrepreneurial educational experience of a generation of young people. As the report states,

Innovation and entrepreneurship provide a way forward for solving the global challenges of the 21st century, building sustainable development, creating jobs, generating renewed economic growth and advancing human welfare. (p.7)

It is time to make up those six years – 4 key steps (as outlined in 2009):

1. Transform the educational system

It is not enough to add entrepreneurship on the perimeter – it needs to be core to the way education operates…This requires a fundamental rethinking of educational systems, both formal and informal, as well as the way in which teachers or educators are trained, how examination systems function and the way in which rewards, recognition and incentives are given. (p.9)

2. Build the entrepreneurial ecosystem

Entrepreneurship thrives in ecosystems in which multiple stakeholders play key roles.. the need for multi-stakeholder partnerships is critical for education and even more so for entrepreneurship education (p. 11)

3. Strive for effective outcomes and impact

The purpose and goals of entrepreneurship education need greater clarity. They should be based on a broadly defined set of outcomes… Entrepreneurship education is about developing attitudes, behaviours and capacities at the individual level. Inherently, it is about leadership. (p. 11)

4. Leverage technology as an enabler

Throughout the report, the role of technology in delivering entrepreneurship education is evident, particularly in terms of creating greater access and scalability for entrepreneurship education. (p. 11)

In 2015, school education has the capacity to provide a context where the school-age Juliette Wright may have been able to develop her idea. Yet, a commitment to entrepreneurial education is limited to the individual schools who recognise that it is essential to the future of our young people. It needs a systemic response.

“Preparing today’s students for success and eventual leadership in the new global marketplace is the most important responsibility in education today. … Entrepreneurship education is an important tool to achieving these objectives [and ]… should be universally available to provide all students with opportunities to explore and fulfil their potential.” Stephanie Bell-Rose, President, Goldman Sachs Foundation & Thomas W. Payzant, Harvard Graduate School of Education (2008)

Let’s start. There is a bit of time to make up.

@anneknock

Well-designed learning spaces can boost student academic performance: University of Salford, Manchester

The University of Salford in Manchester has gained a reputation for looking at the physical aspects of the learning space and their impact on the quality of learning. In 2013 the project on the sensory impacts on learning found (here):

“almost three quarters of the variation in pupil performance could be attributed to design and environmental factors.  All things being equal, the academic performance of a child in the best environment could be expected to be 25% better than an equivalent child in the “poorest” classroom environment.” 

IMG_1732And next? Over three years the HEAD Project (Holistic Evidence and Design) looked at 153 classrooms in 27 diverse schools in three local authorities in England – Blackpool, London Borough of Ealing and Hampshire. The team looked at sensory factors and multilevel statistical modelling to isolate the effects of classroom design.

One big idea

This year the Clever Classrooms report states:

“Well-designed classrooms can boost learning progress in primary school pupils by up to 16% in a single year.” 

Three characteristics

In the research three physical characteristics were assessed:

  • The role of naturalness – light temperature and air quality
  • The opportunity of individualisation – ownership and flexibility
  • Appropriate levels of stimulation – complexity and colour

Whole school factors, such as size, navigation, specialist facilities and play facilities did notappear to be as significant as the design of the individual learning space.

The findings that led to 16% improvement in students learning progress was attributed to a range of factors across these characteristics. Naturalness accounted for almost 50%, with around 25% each for stimulation and individualisation.

Other considerations, size of the school, provision of shared specialist rooms and scale and quality of external spaces had less impact. The most important factor was that the actual learning space, where the students spend most of their day. This needs to be well-designed.

Seven key elements

The research concluded that learning spaces must be well-designed and narrowed the range of inputs to seven design parameters and with the degree of impact:

  1. Light (21%)
  2. Air quality (16%)
  3. Temperature (12%)
  4. Flexibility (11%)
  5. Ownership (17%)
  6. Colour (12%)
  7. Complexity (11%)

The ZoneA few other factors mentioned in the report: The physical design at the school level was less important. Also, it is easy to over-stimulate with vibrant colours and overly busy displays, however a white box is not the answer, either. In the learning spaces small and cost effective changes can make a real difference, including changing the layout, choice of wall displays and colours of the wall.

It is interesting to note that ‘sound’ was identified as a secondary factor, when it is often raised as a key issue by many. The addition of acoustic treatment, soft furnishings and carpets and rubber feet in furniture was noted in the report.

I appreciate the response from Colin Campbell at Ecophon on the matter of sound and acoustics:

“Good speech communication is vital and increasingly dynamic; no longer the teacher just lecturing (only one person speaking), there is a different acoustic dynamic now with increasing collaboration including whole class interaction and group work. In the traditional classroom and increasingly many other additional spaces are now being used for discussions and engagement in learning. These activities can create an increased burden on the teachers as they must collaborate more and manage / coach the learning in a different way. The quieter and calmer a learning space, the easier it is for teachers to remain proactive in their approach thus empowering more student engagement, positive behaviour and increased possibilities and experimentation for learning. So, the food for thought is to consider the need to prioritise good acoustics for speech communication as the need has never been greater.”

What can we do?

Light
  • Keep windows free of displays
  • Use high quality projectors and screens that are not impacted by light
  • Use plants and planters to reduce too much incoming light
Air quality
  • OPEN WINDOWS!
  • Avoid obstructions to airflow
  • Install CO2 metres
Temperature
  • Be attentive to the temperature of the room
  • Use plants and planters to diffuse windows facing the heat
Flexibility
  • Create well-designed learning zones
  • Consider age appropriate size and shape of zones
  • Provide accessible walls for display
Ownership
  • Consider student ownership of work displays
  • Create a sense of familiarity
  • Allow personalisation to aspects of the learning space
  • Good quality furniture
Complexity
  • Create displays that give a liveliness, without being chaotic
  • 20-50% of the wall space kept clear
  • Avoid displays on windows
Colour
  • Assess the colour elements that remain unchanged
  • Determine how much bright colour can be introduced in other aspects
  • Aim to increase stimulation against a muted background

While this research was focused on primary classrooms, it would be interesting to see how it made a difference to the learning spaces in secondary/high schools.

@anneknock