Next generation teachers: How can we inspire current students to say “I want to be a teacher”?

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This week the Australian Story  featured a maths teacher from a Sydney suburban high school. One maths teacher, Eddie Woo, with a story on the national stage.

He sucked me into maths

A student recalled being in Eddie’s class. She felt inadequate at maths, but Eddie didn’t let that get in the way. His personal mission is to get all kids to love maths and experience success. He shares his love of maths with the world. Every maths lesson is recorded and uploaded to his YouTube channel, WooTube. We saw students in remote areas accessing his online classes. Eddie sees his reach beyond the gates of his school.

In Eddie’s class there is only one rule,

We treat each other like humans

As a student Eddie went to a selective high school, one with a reputation the high flyers in the state, and with his grades, Eddie’s parents expected him to become a doctor or a lawyer. They could not understand that their smart son would want to be a teacher. Eddie’s inspiration to teach came from a couple of teachers at his school. He recalled how the teacher just simply asked “How are you going?” In his life, adults hadn’t talked to him in such a personal way. The small connections matter.

In the program we met a next- generation teacher, inspired by Eddie to study education.  If you are a teacher, would your students think,

I want to do that with my life”?

There are probably many pressures that Eddie has to deal with in the day-to-day, he is the head of maths, after all. However, Australian Story focused on this teacher, not because he is good at keeping his paperwork in order, but because of his passion for his subject and his investment in the lives of students, sharing the love of maths with the world.

So what were the some of the characteristics I saw in Eddie Woo?

Fun and laughter

Warmth

Humility

Care and concern

Determination and drive

Belief that kids can succeed

Willingness to share his knowledge

Passion (for people and his subject)

Excellent communicator

Highly relational

Is this the job description we need for teachers?

@anneknock

Simplicity & Nostalgia: A fractured fairytale of school.

old-workOnce, in a land that seems so far away, life was much simpler. Things were predictable. If you were successful in life, you went to school, learnt the stuff they told you to learn, passed your exams, studied your chosen vocation (chosen by whom was probably debatable), started a job, stayed in that job (and maybe even hated that job but it fed your family), retired with a gold watch, bought a caravan and drove off into the sunset. This only tells half the story. The ‘good old days’ timeline for the majority of women would have been vastly different.

The response of many to the complexity of the 21st century is to remember days that were simpler, but this nostalgic view of life has been broken, mostly by technology and all those ‘terrible’ opportunities to create, connect and collaborate. While life is undoubtedly much more complex today, it also has the potential to be more fulfilling, especially to that previously mentioned 50%, who’s life choices were pre-determined by societal expectations.

This simpler life fits the ‘Newtonian Paradigm’. Sir Isaac Newton saw the operation of society like a clockwork mechanism, it was ultimately ‘reducible’,

“The machine’s function was understood to be no more than the sum of its parts. To understand the function, the machine could be reduced to its parts, and each part reduced to smaller parts, viewed in isolation to each other”
(Wells & McLean, 2013, p.68).

Last century, schools fitted neatly into the reductionist paradigm, often referred to as the factory model. It was expedient and prudent to be mechanistic about schooling, where the main benefit of all those years seemed to be ‘a job for life’. A linear curriculum, predominantly directive pedagogies, subject hierarchies and rectangular classrooms sufficiently served the purpose of school-as-factory (Davis & Sumara, 2010). As technology disrupted, the game changed. The emphasis shifted from ‘teaching’ (teacher-directed) to ‘learning’ (student-centred). 

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. (Aristotle)

Learning is complex. The study of complexity acknowledges that the ‘whole’ functions as a system, with multiple participants involved in self-organisation. ‘Complex adaptive systems’ operate in the in-between, rather than extremes where it could be thought, if there there isn’t control, then there must be anarchy. (Miller & Page, 2007).

Educators have now begun to use complexity theory to show how the relationships of individuals, collective ideas, and curriculum can be thought of as nested learning communities” (Upitis, 2004). 

With schools seen as complex adaptive systems there has been a turning point in how teachers work and how schools are designed. Command and control approaches, linear pathways and predetermined endpoints can no longer predominate in the 21st century. Teaching becomes, “a form of engaged attentiveness and responsiveness to others” (Upitis, p.28). This requires a balance – providing enough level of organisation and openness to enable productive learning. It is definitely not a learning culture of ‘free range chickens’ doing exactly what they want.

Alongside this, the physical environment also needs to support the complexity,

educational reform cannot happen in buildings that currently exists and it is the job of both the architects and educators… to determine how the natural and built environments can change in concert with educational philosophy” (Upitis p. 33-34).

Learning is complex and the learning environment needs to be responsive. The rectangular classroom, one teacher for an age-based class of 25-30 students cannot serve the complexity of nested learning communities. Maintaining the nostalgic view of education is unhelpful, to the teaching profession, to society, and most importantly, to our young people.

@anneknock

Refs:

Davis, B., & Sumara, D. (2010). ‘If things were simple . . .’: complexity in education. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice

Miller, J. H., & Page, S. E. (2007). Complex adaptive systems. [electronic resource] : an introduction to computational models of social life: Princeton, N.J.

 

Upitis, R. (2004). School architecture and complexity. Complicity: an international journal of complexity in education

Wells, S. & McLean, J (2013). One Way Forward to beat the Newtonian Habit with a complexity perspective in organisational change. The University of Adelaide Business School

(Pedagogy + Place) & (Rhetoric + Reality) in learning space design: A decade of dialogue

Screen Shot 2017-04-02 at 10.38.46 am“How to bring our schools out of the 20th Century” was the title of an article in TIME in December 2006. It featured a more recent take on the Rip Van Winkle fairy tale. After 100 years of slumber, Rip wakes in the first decade of the 21st century. As he walks the streets, observing the citizens of the day utilising technology he is bewildered. When Rip walks into a schoolroom, there is familiarity, “This is a school”,  he declares. “We used to have those back in 1906, only now the blackboards are green.”’ 

In this scenario it is the physical environment of the school that illustrates the lack of progress in a century of unprecedented social, cultural and technological change. What did Rip Van Winkle see as he walked into the schoolroom? A rectangular room, students seated desks in rows facing the front with a blackboard and the teacher positioned nearby?  The article went on to say,

“Kids spend much of their day as their great grandparents once did: sitting in rows, listening to the teacher lecture, scribbling notes by hand, reading from textbooks that are out of date by the time they are printed”.

In the decade since the article was published, Rip may still have had the same experience, but the ‘blackboards’ are probably white or ‘illuminated.’ 

Earlier this year an  Australian Financial Review headline proclaimed, “Australia’s school system is stuck in the industrial era and is not teaching students how to deal with complex environments and the multiple careers they will experience in the 21st century”. Link to article (Photo below credited to AFR article)

 

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The Mitchell Institute report Preparing young people for the future of work outlined significant challenges, and goes on to question whether schools are “adequately preparing young people for the future”. The report argues that, “Growth is seen in the ‘non-routine’ industries, those requiring innovation, creativity, problem solving and to changing circumstances”. Andreas Schleicher of the OECD stated, “The dilemma for educators is that routine cognitive skills, the skills that are easiest to teach and easiest to test, are also the skills that are easiest to digitise, automate, and outsource.”

2008 Melbourne Declaration on Education Goals for Young Australians states that this generation need to be successful learners;  confident and creative individuals; active and informed citizens” and commits the Australian and State governments to work with schools to strengthen “capabilities that underpin flexible and analytical thinking, a capacity to work with others and an ability to move across subject disciplines to develop new expertise” (emphasis added). 

Why does the physical learning environment matter?

If the priority of school education in the second decade of the 21st century is to provide the conditions for ‘successful learners’ to gain the skills and attributes listed, then this requires consideration of the design of the learning environment to support and enable these desired outcomes to occur. 

Maintaining classrooms that would be familiar to Rip van Winkle will continue to reinforce 20th Century practices of education.  Today, places for learning must support teaching and learning activities that shift the focus from teacher-centred to learner-centred.

“The traditional classroom is a product of a teacher-centred pedagogy, framing a hierarchical relationship between teacher and students whilst closing out other activities and distractions. . . It has long been clear that student-centred pedagogies are seriously constrained by traditional classrooms.” (Dovey & Fisher, 2015).

Dovey and Fisher (2014) analysed 59 middle school plans, “covering a broad range of attempts to engage with new pedagogies through innovative architecture”. They identified five typologies for learning environments,  from the traditional classroom to “dedicated commons”. They found that from these school buildings, constructed in the preceding decade, almost half remain “largely traditional in spatial structures”.

There is seemingly, an incongruence between what we say we want for our students, and the learning environments that are ultimately provided. In 2006 this article in TIME was a catalyst that helped me to readjust my thinking about future-focused learning and how the design of schools plays a part in this. I despair, however, that after a decade we are still engaged in the same debate. Interestingly, the community, parents and government want so-called ’21st Century skills’, yet there seems to be fear in messing with the formula for designing the place for these skills to fully develop.

@anneknock

 

Australian Financial Review,  Australian schools are stuck in the industrial era, says Mitchell Institute report March 26, 2017

Claudia Wallis and Sonja Steptoe How to bring our schools out of the 20th Century TIME, December 18, 2006

Dovey & Fisher (2014) Designing for adaptation: the school as socio-spatial assemblage, The Journal of Architecture, 19:1, 43-63

Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians

Schleicher, A (2015). Educating for the 21st Century.

Shifting the practice of education from polite cooperation to purposeful collaboration

Cooperation or collaboration?

img_8242-11.jpgIn lists of the various ‘Cs’ of the 21st century ‘collaboration always seems to make an appearance. In this past week I worked with a group of educators, looking at agile learning spaces, thinking about how we need to work to ensure engaged learning for students in these spaces. The necessity of real teacher collaboration was the consistent theme across the groups.

Do you think educators, teachers and leaders, are collaborating or cooperating?

They were still unable to truly achieve the desired outcome because they confused pleasant, cooperative behaviour with collaboration.” (HBR April 2015)

The difference collaborating and cooperating

Hord (1986) undertook a study of research on organisational collaboration and presented the difference:

  • Cooperation – People working together, separately and autonomously. There may be mutual agreement around the task, but the work does not progress beyond that.
  • Collaboration – A relational system within group, where individuals share aspirations for the outcomes. It operates in a model of joint planning and joint implementation.

Collaboration facilitates pooling resources and dividing labour, it alleviates isolation, sustains motivation and creates energy. However, it also feels time-consuming to collaborate and there is significant personal investment necessary to sustain it.

Teacher collaboration and student learning

In many schools teachers make efforts to cooperate, but it is much less common to find teachers actually collaborating. In daily practice, teachers… often use the word ‘collaboration’, while what they do… is actually cooperation.
(Meirink et al, 2010 p.164)

The so-called ‘new pedagogies’ of the 21st century require a student-oriented approach, which means educators give up old routines and shift prevailing beliefs, as openness and transparency become essential elements of practice. Collaboration is critical to this. The effectiveness of collaboration can be observed in the way individuals interact within teams.

Collaboration and learning are closely related. Effective collaborative teams show a high level of interdependency and autonomy, and are characterised by group cohesion, the glue that holds the team together. Alignment around the vision is important for effective collaborative teams, where goals are shared and a strong team approach is evident.

Moving from Cooperation to Collaboration

Level 1: Show and tell – low level collegial activity, hearing about each other’s’ practice

Level 2: Let me help – Critically looking at another’s teaching practice

Level 3: Share and share alike – Openly exchanging materials and ideas

Level 4: We’re in this together – Collective responsibility for the work of teaching in the team

If teaching teams remain at the levels 1 and 2, they will stay ‘cooperative’. It takes deliberate effort and shared commitment to progress to true collaboration. (Adapted from Meirink et al)

How do you grow a culture of collaboration in your school?

  1. Don’t give up at the first (or second) attempt – collaborative relationships grow from successful previous experiences
  2. Make the outcomes clear – goals that are mutually held assist in growing collaboration
  3. Get some quick wins – achieving some short term goals as a team will encourage progress
  4. Challenge preconceptions about collaboration – our own personal experiences impact assumptions and decisions

(adapted from Hord 1986)

@anneknock

Refs

Ashkenas, R (2015), There’s a difference between cooperation and collaboration HBR (Blog), April 20, 2015

Meirink, Imants, Meijer & Verloop (2010) Teacher learning and collaboration in innovative teams, Cambridge Journal of Education, 40:2, 161-181

Hord (1986) A Synthesis of Research on Organisational Collaboration, Educational Leadership, Feb 1986

How open learning space can work for introverts, extroverts & ambiverts: D.A.R.E.

Let me give you a snapshot of myself.  

I like people, I enjoy conversation. I am quite comfortable in settings where I don’t necessarily know anyone. I don’t find it difficult to strike up a conversation with a new person. I’m fairly confident communicating with small and large groups. I actually enjoy a good meeting, with robust discussion and clear outcomes. On this basis, you could say that I’m an extrovert.

On the other hand, I’m not actually energised by being in crowds. I regularly seek time to be in my own head, working alone. I would rather have dinner with my family or a small group of friends, than work-the-room at a party.  I love reading and sharing thoughts and ideas through writing. On this basis, you could say I’m an introvert.

beyond1.jpgI’ve been reading about the impact of noise distraction on introverts and extroverts and couldn’t quite work out where I fit. Lately, it seems that being an introvert ‘is the new black’. So I decided to take a few online tests (based on ‘what?’, I don’t know), but these were the results of four tests:

  • Extrovert
  • More extrovert (than introvert, I think)
  • Mild Introvert
  • Ambivert

An ‘ambivert’ is a person who balances traits of both the extrovert and introvert in their personality. Like most things today, we can think about this personality trait spectrum. This article: 9 signs that you’re an ambivert explains further.

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Being an extravert, introvert or ambivert, preferences the way we work and learn. Noise impacts our productivity, often dependent on the type of task we are doing and  our personality trait.

Noise sensitivity is a core personality factor (Oseland and Hodsman, 2015). The learning environment can be designed with this in mind, allowing for a quiet place for the introvert to work on a complex task, and the extrovert to be amidst the buzz of activity for simple task. Oseland and Hodsman propose a people-centred approach to acoustic solutions in the office environment – DARE:

  • Displace noise distractions by providing easy access to informal meeting areas, breakout and brainstorming rooms
  • Avoid generating noise distraction by locating noisy teams together and considering the personalities
  • Reduce noise distraction by controlling the density and using good acoustic design
  • Educate by introducing etiquette and agreed behavioural norms concerning phone use, music and managing disruptions

How would DARE work in the open and shared learning environment?

“Aren’t open learning environments better suited to extroverts?

“Don’t introverts just get frustrated by the noise?”

These are common questions. An open and shared learning environment doesn’t mean a great big barn with the sound bouncing around, creating an assault on eardrums. There needs to be an intention around designing collaborative spaces, but the execution of the idea must consider the details to make it work – noise, personalities and types of activities matter.  Here is DARE from the perspective of the open learning environment:

  • Displace: The design of the space provides zones for working in different ways, giving the learner agency, such as:
    • Quiet zones for individual work
    • Collaboration areas allowing for noise
    • An ‘in-between’ spaces where social connection can be maintained in the buzz.
  • Avoid: Consider the placement of collaboration areas and the proximity to quiet zones. This recognises the personalities of the students and the teachers, the task to be undertaken, and where they need or want to work.
  • Reduce: Wherever possible reduce the impact of the noise transference through good acoustic design, but also think about soft furnishings, flooring and the density of bodies inhabiting the space.  
  • Educate: Establish agreed norms of behaviour. The level of communication amongst teachers working in the spaces is critical. It is essential to each and model acceptable and respectful behaviours in shared environments.

@anneknock

Ref: Oseland, N. &  Hodsman, P (2015) Planning for Psychoacoustics: A Psychological Approach to Resolving Office Noise Distraction Prepared for: Saint-Gobain Ecophon

Psychoacoustics of learning environments: A people-centred approach to noise

file_000-4As I write, it’s a rainy day. Our small apartment is on the top level of the building, located on a semi-busy road. Not a highway nor a freeway, more of a connection between suburbs. I’m quite used to the steady stream of traffic noise  and today, as it’s raining, so there is the added wet-road swoosh accompanying the sound of the cars and buses. I can work with this ambient sound. Some would probably call it noisy, and find it unproductive, but I am now used to this environment. My focus is occasionally broken by an inconsistent sound, a transient noise: a motorcycle, construction work or siren. My mind works out each of these almost subconsciously, they’re just a ‘blip’ to my work. It’s only the fairly unusual sounds that make we stop and think, “That’s a helicopter”.

Sound is an important consideration in the workplace and learning environment. This week I shared an article on LinkedIn that seemed to touch a nerve: How does noise affect productivity in the office? It had around 1700 views and more comments and likes that any other post I can recall recently. Noise is a sensitive and a personal subject.

From reading the white paper linked to this article (ref below), I began to understand the realm of noise vs sound, noise sensitivity, productivity and concentration. It is so much more than measuring decibels and meeting approved standards to achieve a productive working or learning environment. An individual’s response to noise is subjective, and the report explores how considering psychoacoustics can help designers to take into account the human elements – personalities, working styles and preferences – when designing the appropriate acoustic working environment. The report says that noise is the most significant cause of dissatisfaction in the workplace, leading to loss of productivity.

“The better we can understand the individual and take a human approach, from that perspective, the better environment we can create.”
Paige Hodsman, Saint-Gobain Ecophon. (

Obviously, as I was reading, my mind was making links to the innovative learning environment. The activity-based workplace is a helpful comparison to the innovative learning environment. Activity-based work enables choice – where to work, who to work with – depending on the nature of the task. This working environment is designed with a range of affordances, such as meeting rooms, focus rooms and quiet zones. Innovative learning environments, which some seem to consider to be large noisy open barns, can also be designed and zoned for the different kinds of work that engages the learner. Sound, and its unwanted sibling, noise, are pertinent considerations in the design of  learning environments.

“Let’s stop this madness of open plan classrooms right now, please.” said  Julian Treasure in his TED Talk  Why architects need to use their ears.

It doesn’t need to be an either/or argument. Either we have walls up and quiet classrooms, or we have no walls and sheer bedlam. Utilising the knowledge we have now, there can be a both/and solution for schools. We can have open, shared and collaborative spaces, and also allow for the noise sensitivity, the psychoacoustics need to be addressed in school.

I found this paper fascinating and will share more insight into psychoacoustics and potential considerations for schools.

@anneknock

Ref: Oseland, N. &  Hodsman, P (2015) Planning for Psychoacoustics: A Psychological Approach to Resolving Office Noise Distraction Prepared for: Saint-Gobain Ecophon

 

Growing a professional learning community in your school: ONE thing that you need first.

Effective and lasting change in schools, or any organisation for that matter, is a result of a strategic process, designed to meet the needs of the school, rather than ‘sending a couple of teachers off to a workshop’. When I first started at SCIL we decided to run workshops on a variety of educational topics, such as ‘Learning Matrix ’ or ‘Web 2.0 Tools for the Classroom’. These were often presented to a disparate group of educators sent along to learn some skills for their own classroom and tick a few accreditation boxes along the way. Something started to feel not quite right with this ‘lone ranger’ methodology.

We instinctively knew that for effective pedagogical change, we needed to encourage teams to come, to participate in a facilitated process. This was a catalyst for Design/Engage. We believed that effective professional learning, leading to change in mindset and practice, could really only happen through a learning community.

“The most promising strategy for sustained, substantive school improvement is the developing ability of school personnel to function as a professional learning community.” (DuFour & Eaker, 1998)img_8242.jpg

Professional: expertise, knowledge and experience in a particular field

Learning: ongoing and fed by curiosity

Community : characterised by mutual cooperation, emotional support and personal growth, working together toward shared goal

For effective professional learning in community, there is one key characteristic that needs to be in place,

“It is evident that among faculty members looking to improve their schools as professional learning communities, a commitment to trust is frequently regarded as an important pre-condition.” (Cranston, 2011,p. 61).  

What type of trust?

Bryk and Schneider (2002) described trust as the basis for developing social capital, and identify three types:

Organic Trust is based on the moral character and designated authority of leadership and is given unconditionally. This kind of trust has often been seen in faith-based environments, clergy and lay-leaders, had almost unquestioned trust. Yet, this basis has been somewhat eroded today, as we frequently see tragic cases of abuse of such trust. 

Contractual Trust is transactional. Basic actions and outcomes are agreed upon, in accordance with stated terms. In this era of high-stakes testing and parent expectations and government agendas, it is a fear that education could be translated to these terms.

Relational Trust, John Dewey observed that a good school is more like a [functional]  family than a factory (Bryk and Schneider, 2002). Relational trust forms the basis of the ‘family’ interactions. Despite personality differences and clashes, there is a bedrock of connection that enables relationships to be maintained. 

Relational trust is the foundation of the effective professional learning community, and essential for effective and lasting change.

On a personal note, I firmly believe that in the 21stC faith-based schools and communities need to be built on the notion of ‘relational trust’. One that is evident in a leader’s ongoing trustworthiness, rather than on the basis of moral authority alone.

@anneknock

Refs
Bryk & Schneider (2002) Trust in Schools: A core resource for improvement
Ch2: Relational Trust
DuFour & Eaker (1998) Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement: Best practice for enhancing student achievement

School Education: A both/and solution? Standards & accountability AND joy & creativity

I’m a big picture, solutions-focused kind of person. I love solving problems and making things better. As a result, my biggest stressor is when I can’t see a way through. I’ve just listened to a podcast: Why school teacher Gabbie Stroud loved and left her career. Then I read her piece in the Griffith Review, Fixing the system. And then I wanted to sit down and have a good cry.

My husband and I listened to the 50 minute podcast on a 40 minute journey home from visiting my father on a Sunday afternoon, at one point I said, “take the long way, we need to hear this to the end.” Gabbie painted a picture of a loving teacher, investing deeply into her students, but she finally left the profession due to the pressures of testing, data-gathering and standards. She writes,

How did I get here?

I was burnt out because successive Australian governments – both left and right – have locked Australian education into the original model of schooling first established during the industrial revolution. Each decision made keeps us stuck in an archaic learn-to-work model, now complete with ongoing mandatory assessment of our student’s likely productivity and economic potential.

Fundamental to this model is the idea of standardising.

Standards, standardising and standardisation.

Making every kid the same.

Making every teacher the same.

If I was successful in my job, that’s what would happen.

Based on that, I don’t want the job any more. (Griffith Review 51)

As Gabbie spoke of the excitement of pre-service teachers desperate to start with their own class, I remembered the feeling. As she talked of small children competing for your attention and hanging off every word, I also recalled the joy of investing into these young lives.

But I left the coal-face before standardised testing became the behemoth, along with its associated pressures. So when I read that “the latest figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics suggest 53 per cent of people who hold a teaching degree do not currently work in education” (Here), I despaired. When the NSW Education linked student progression to the HSC (final Year 12 exams) to their achievement in the Year 9 NAPLAN (national standarised tests) I despaired again. (Here)

I understand accountability. I understand benchmarking. I understand that governments have fiscal responsibilities to ensure that funds are spent in such a way that our nation will progress and measurement mechanisms are the pragmatic response to this.

But is this at the cost of sucking the joy out of teaching and learning? Great teachers teach, not ‘facilitate’ – they know their students, they have knowledge, they can adapt their pedagogy to bring out the gold, and they enjoy what they do. On Australian 60 Minutes last weekend disruptive principal, Peter Hutton, from Templestowe HS in Melbourne was asked by the reporter about the kinds of students they produce at his school, Peter replied, “We’re not a factory, we don’t ‘produce’ students.”

I would love to find a both/and solution. Pendulum swings and bandwagons have dominated the sector for too long. Standards, effective teaching measures and achieving outcomes matter, but not at the cost of relationships, creativity and joy. Will the current students have the memory of that amazing teacher that sparked something, who instilled the lifelong joy of learning?

Hope so.

@anneknock

 

 

 

It’s time to rethink pre-service and early career teachers… We want them to stay!

In the second week of the new school year in Australia the Grattan Institute, an independent think tank, released the report Engaging Students – Creating classrooms that improve learning. It is important to consider the holistic environment that promotes learning and engagement in students. Student behaviour and the choices that they make are critical to the overall success of the students’ experiences at school.

“Any parent knows that the best intentions can disappear under pressure – yet we expect teachers to get it right every day” (p.8)

This report seeks to affirm teachers in their role, recognising the difficulties faced in the classroom and makes recommendations at the school level and government/system level.

Much of my reading and thinking is around the physical environment and engaging learning for students, but the management of behaviour is a dynamic that can’t be ignored. It is another one of those under-the-surface-of-the-iceberg elements. Innovative learning environments, passionate teachers and creative content is insufficient unless the cultural and social norms of the learning community are known and shared.

The Grattan Institute report outlines some startling statistics about the impact of disengagement on learning. The disengaged students at the heart of the report are not those displaying overtly aggressive behaviour, but are disruptive and passively disengaged. It states that unproductive students are, on average, two years behind peers in literacy and numeracy, while passively disengaged students do just as poorly as disruptive students.

Attitudes and mindsets of teachers are addressed, stating that stressed teachers can get caught in a damaging cycle when student behaviour escalates. Many of us recall teachers decades ago who would yell, humiliate students, they would use sarcasm and even punish the entire class. This type of teacher behaviour benefits no one. I do hope that teachers like this are no longer in the profession.

The experience of the pre-service teacher that is really under the microscope here. In an era when too many young teachers are leaving the profession in the first five years, they identify the ‘number one’ professional development need is managing student behaviour. It seems we are failing them in their initial teacher education and then the quality of induction and mentoring once they commence in the profession.

 While managing student behaviour as a new teacher is one of the greatest stressors, it appears that the time spent on this during initial teacher education is minimal. Quality in-school practicums are essential, learning from exemplar teachers on how they establish routines and parameters in their classes.

What if we took this one step further, that exemplar schools became places for initial teacher education, as it occurs in the UK. Schools could work in partnership with universities, providing a more effective progression from theory to practice. With each innovation and technological shift in the 21st century, the world of students change. Schools are better placed as the incubators for young teachers, providing real-time understanding of the emerging generation at school. Then, once they commence as a fully-fledged teacher, ensure a mentor/support program is in place. 

No ‘sink or swim’ attitudes welcome here.

@anneknock

First things first: Principal as change agent

Before we even begin to think about teacher being a change agent, we first need to ensure the conditions are in place for the principal be an effective agent of change in the school. 

What do teachers think about the change styles of principals? You may be surprised by what they think. The article “The Relationships Between School Principals’ Perceived Change Facilitator Styles and Teachers’ Attitude to Change” (Bagibel, 2014) researched teachers’ attitudes to change and principals’ change facilitator styles. The researchers concluded that the principals’ styles are determine teachers’ attitudes to change to a significant degree. This post graphically represents the findings from the research paper.

slide01slide02slide03slide04slide05slide06slide07slide08slide09slide10@anneknock

Ref: Bagibel, M. et al 2014, The Relationships Between School Principals’ Perceived Change Facilitator Styles and Teachers’ Attitude to Change”, ISEA Vol 42, No. 3